Suggested Learning Resources


2) Video Lesson: Modulating to Closely-related Keys, ComposerOnline Channel

Bonus Video: Pivot Chord Modulations, Byron Weigel Channel

3) Online Reading: Modulation with Pivot Chords

4) Interactive Lesson: 

Music Theory QuickThink: 

-              A pivot chord is a harmony which exists diatonically (within the key signature) of two different keys

-              Pivot chords function one way in the preceding music and another way in the music to follow, for example: Am is the vi chord in the key of C major, but at the same time, the ii chord in the key of G major

-              Pivot chord modulation has occurred when a pivot chord is used at the point of modulation

-              Analyze pivot chords two times – once for the preceding key, and once for the new target key


-              Keys adjacent on the circle of fifths (differing by one sharp or flat) generally have 4 possible pivot chords, for example the keys C and G diatonically share chords C, Em, G, and Am, respectively I, iii, V, vi in C major and IV, vi, I and ii in G major.

-              Major keys share with their relative minor keys all chords as possible pivot chords, for example, in C major -- C, dm, em, F, G, am, b° are I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii°, while in A minor the same chords are  III, iv, v, vi, VII, i, ii°. 

Objective 31.1: Examples in Music: YouTube

Objective 31.1: Define the terms pivot chord and pivot chord modulation, and Identify the possible pivot chords between two given keys (including minor dominant)