Suggested Learning Resources


2) Video Lesson: 

3) Online Reading: Modulation Types

4) Interactive Lesson: 

Music Theory QuickThink: 

-          The term “direct modulation” describes a key change that does not use a pivot chord or common tone. One phrase or passage ends with a recognizable cadence

-          the subsequent phrase begins in a new key abruptly, without special preparation

-          'direct modulation' is sometimes referred to as 'phrase modulation'


-          To identify a direct modulation, determine the key in a passage of music

-          Look for a second phrase or passage in a contrasting key

-          Use appropriate strategies to find a pivot chord or common tone; the presence of these devices negate the ‘direct modulation’ designation

-          Absent a pivot chord or common tone (or some other linkage device), identify the key of the originating passage, the modulated passed and write ‘direct modulation.”

Objective 32.2: Examples in Music: YouTube

Objective 32.2: Define direct modulation, and Identify and label direct modulations in real music examples